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  13. The Universal Joint Commission. Speak Up.
  14. National Athletic Trainers’ Association.  Official Statement on Athletic Health Care Provider “Time Outs” Before Athletic Events.
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  7. Swartz EE, Boden BP, et al., National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: Acute management of the cervical spine-injured athlete.  J Athl Train. 2009;44(3):306-331.
  8. The Universal Joint Commission. Speak Up.
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  10. Swartz EE, Boden BP, et al., National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: Acute management of the cervical spine-injured athlete.  J Athl Train. 2009;44(3):306-331.


Sudden Cardiac Arrest

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  7. Neumar RW, Otto CW, Link MS et al. Part 8: adult advanced cardiovascular life support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2010;122[suppl 8]:S729-S767.
  8. Hopson LR, Hirsh E, Delgado J et al. Guidelines for withholding or termination of resuscitation in prehospital traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest. National Association of EMS Physicians position paper. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2003;7(1):141-146.
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  16. Hallstrom AP, Ornato JP, Weisfeldt M, et al. Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:637–646.
  17. Drezner JA, Rogers KJ, Zimmer RR, Sennett BJ. Use of automated external defibrillators at NCAA Division I universities. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:1487–1492.
  18. White RD, Bunch TJ, Hankins DG. Evolution of a community-wide early defibrillation program experience over 13 years using police/fire personnel and paramedics as responders. Resuscitation. 2005;65:279–283.
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  21. Macdonald RD, Swanson JM, et al. Performance and error analysis of AED use in the out-of-hospital setting. Ann Emerg Med.  2001 Sep;38(3):262-7.
  22. Cecchin F, Jorgenson DB et al. Is arrhythmia detection by AED accurate in children?   2001;103:2483-2488.
  23. Morrison LJ, Kierzek G, Diekema DS et al. Part 3: ethics: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. 2010;122[suppl 3]:S665-S675.

Airway Management

Some text is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

1. Neumar RW, Otto CW, Link MS et al. Part 8: adult advanced cardiovascular life support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2010;122(suppl 3):S729 –S767.
2. Paluska, SA, Lansford CD. Laryngeal Trauma in Sport. Curr. Sports Med. Rep., 2008;7(1). 16-21.
3. Rejali SD, Bennett JD, Upile T, Rothera MP. Diagnostic pitfalls in sports related laryngeal injury. Br. J Sports Med. 1998; 32: 180-181.
4. Cook, TM, McCormick B, Asai T. Randomized comparison of laryngeal tube with classic laryngeal mask airway for anaesthesia with controlled ventilation. Br J Anaesth. 2003;91(3):373-8.
5. Cook TM, McKinstry C, Hardy R, Twigg S. Randomized crossover comparison of the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway with the Laryngeal Tube during anaesthesia with controlled ventilation. Br J Anaesth. 2003;91(5):678-83.
6. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS. Part 5: adult basic life support: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122:S685-S705.
7. Miller MG, Berry DC. Adjunct breathing devices and supplemental oxygen therapy. In Emergency Response Management for Athletic Trainers. 1st ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011: 207-232.
8. Becker DE, Rosenberg MB, Phero JC. Essentials of airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation: part 1: basic equipment and devices. Anesth Prog. 2014 Summer;61(2):78-83.
9. Garcia JA, Gardner D, Vines D, Shelledy D, Wettstein R, Peters J (October 2005). The Oxygen Concentrations Delivered by Different Oxygen Therapy Systems. Chest Meeting 128 (4): 389S–390S.
10. Cairo JM. Mosby’s Respiratory Care Equipment. 9th ed. St Louis, Mo: Elsevier Mosby Inc; 2014:67, 83–88, 150–154.
11. Rosenberg MB, Phero JC, Becker DE. Essentials of airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation: part 2: advanced airway devices: supraglottic airways. Anesth Prog. 2014 Fall;61(3):113-8.
12. Bein B, Scholz J. Supraglottic airway devices. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2005;19(4):581-93.
13. Limmer D, O’Keefe MF. Emergency Care. 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc; 2009.
14. American Society of Anesthsiologists: Practice guidelines for management of the difficult airway. An update report by the American Academy of Anesthsiologists task force on management of the difficult airway. Anesth. 2013;118(2):1-18.
15. Walls R, Murphy MF. Emergency Airway Alogorithms. In Manual of Emergency Management. 3rd ed. Philadelphia. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008;8-22.

Conditional Protocols

Allergic Reactions


1. New York State Education Department Epinephrine Resources. Accessed 10/20/2016.
2. Schwartz LB. Systemic anaphylaxis, food allergy, and insect sting allergy. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007.
3. Wasserman SI. Approach to the person with allergic or immunologic disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007.
4. Sampson HA, Munoz-Furlong A, Campbell RL, Adkinson NF Jr, Bock SA, Branum A, et al. Second symposium on the definition and management of anaphylaxis: summary report: Second National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network Symposium. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:391–397
5. Pumphrey RSH. Lessons for management of anaphylaxis from a study of fatal reactions. Clin Exp Allergy.2000;30:1144 –1150.
6. Yeargin SS, Yeargin BE, Anderson JM. Anaphylactic shock, hypothermia, diabetes, and wilderness medicine. In: Casa DJ, ed. Preventing Sudden Death in Sport and Physical Activity.  Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. 2012:201-231.
7. Korey Stringer Institute. University of Connecticut. On-line at Accessed 10/21/2016.
8. Simons FE, Ardusso LR, Bilo MB, El-Gamal YM et al. World allergy organization guidelines for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis.World Allergy Organ J. 2011;4(2):13-37.
Simons FE. Anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:S402-S407.
10. Worth A, Nurmatov U, Sheikh A. Key components of anaphylaxis management plans: consensus findings from a national electronic Delphi study. JRSM Short Rep. 2010;1(5):43.
11. WebMD.. Understanding anaphylaxis prevention. On-line at Accessed 10/22/16
12. American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology. Storage and stability of automatic epinephrine injectors. On-line at Accessed 10/22/16.
13. EpiPen. Patient information Leaflet. Available at Accessed 9/19/16.
14. American Heart Association. Update to instructors for use of epinephrine autoinjectors. CPR & Emergency Cardiovascular Care. February 7, 2017.
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1. Miller M, Weiler JM, Baker R, Collins J, D’Alonzo GD. National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statement: Management of Asthma in Athletes. J Athl Train. 2008. Jul-Sept; 40(3): 224-245.
3. National Lung Health Education Program. 3. Metered-Dose Inhalers (MDIs).  Accessed 10/20/16.
4. American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology. 4. Inhaled Asthma Medications: Tips to Remember.  Accessed 10/20/16.
5. American College of Chest Physicians. Patient Education Guides. 5. Using Your MDI: Closed- Mouth Technique. Accessed 10/20/16.
6. American College of Chest Physicians. Patient Education Guides. 6. Using Your MDI With a Spacer. Accessed 10/20/16.
7. American College of Chest Physicians. Patient Education Guides. 7. Using Your MDI With a Spacer and Mask – Pediatric.  Accessed 10/20/16.

Environmental Emergencies

Cold Related Conditions

1. NCAA Sports Medicine Handbook (2013-2014)
2. Cappaert, T., Stone, J.A., Castellani, J.W., Krause, B.A., Smith, D., and Stephens, B.A. National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statement: Environmental Cold Injuries. Journal of Athletic Training. 43(6):640-658. 2008.
3. Prevention of Cold Injuries During Exercise. ACSM Position Stand. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2006: 2012-2029.
4. Red Cross: “Frostbite and Hypothermia.
5. CDC: “Winter Weather: Frostbite.”
6. AMA Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care: “Cold Related Problems: Frostbite.”
7. Young, A.J., Castellani, J.W., O’Brian, C. et al., Exertional fatigue, sleep loss, and negative-energy balance increases susceptibility to hypothermia. Journal of Applied Physiology. 85:1210-1217, 1998.
8. Frey C: Frostbitten feet: Steps to treatment and prevention. The Physician and Sportsmedicine 21(1):67-76, 1992.
9. Street, Scott, Runkle, Debra. Athletic Protective Equipment: Care, Selection, and Fitting. McGraw-Hill, 2001
10. Armstrong, LE: Performing in Extreme Environments. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers. 1999.
11. Askew EW: Nutrition for a cold environment. The Physician and Sportsmedicine 17(12):77-89, 1989.
12. Robinson WA: Competing with the cold. The Physician and Sportsmedicine 20(1):61-65, 1992.
13. Thornton JS: Hypothermia shouldn’t freeze out cold-weather athletes. The Physician and Sportsmedicine 18(1): 109-114, 1990.
14. Mayo Clinic:
17. http:www.accuweather.com


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  2. Lopez RE, Holle RL, Heitkamp TA, Boyson M, Cherington M, Langford, K. The underreporting of lighting injuries and deaths in Colorado.  Bull AM Meteorol Soc. 1993; 74(11):2171-2178.
  3. Holle R, Cummins K. Monthly distributions of U.S. NLDN cloud-to-ground lightning.  Paper presented at:  International Lightning Detection Conference; April 21-22, 2010; Orlando, FL.
  4. Duclos PJ, Sanderson LM. An epidemiological description of lightening-related deaths in the United States.  J Epidemiol.  1990; 19(3):  673-679
  5. Lopez R, Holle R, Heitkamp T.  Lightning casualties and property damage in Colorado from 1950 to 1991 based on Storm Data.    1995; 10(1):  114-126.
  6. Bennett B, Holle R, Lopez R. Lightning safety guidelines.  In:  Klossner D, ed.  National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports Medicine Handbook.  Overland Park, KS:  National Collegiate Association; 2011-2012.
  7. Uman M. All About Lightning.  New York, NY:  Dover Publications; 1986.
  8. Holle R. Lightning fatalities in tropical and subtropical regions.  29th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology.
  9. Bennett BL.  A model lightning safety policy for athletics.  J Athl Train.  1997; 32(3):251-253.
  10. Holle RL, Lopez RE, Howard KW, Vavrek R, Allsopp J.  Safety in the presence of lightning.  Semin Neurol. 1995;15(4)375-380.
  11. Zimmerman C, Cooper MA, Holle RL.  Lightning safety guidelines.  Ann Emerg Med. 2002;39(6):660-664.
  12. Holle RL. Lightning-caused deaths and injuries in and near dwellings and other buildings.  Paper presented at:  4th Conference on the Meteorological Applications of Lightning Data; January 11-15, 2009; Phoenix, AZ.
  13. Cooper MA, Edlich RF, Kulkarni R. Lightning injuries.  Accessed March 5, 2012.
  14. Cooper MA.  Lightning prognostic signs of death.  Ann Emerg Med.  1980;9(3):  134-138.
  15. Cooper MA, Emergent care of lightning and electrical injuries. Semin Neurol. 1995; 15(3): 268-278.
  16. Rakov VA, Ulman MA. Lightning:  Physics and Effects.  Cambridge, UK:  Cambridge University Press; 2003.
  17. Cooper MA, A fifth mechanism of lightning injury. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9(2): 172-174.
  18. Cooper, MA, Holle RL. Mechanisms of lightning injury should affect lightning safety messages.  Paper presented at:  3rd International Lightning and Meteorology Conference; April 19-22, 2010:  Orlando, FL.
  19. Gatewood MO, Zane RD. Lightning injuries.  Emerg Med Clin North Am.  2004;22(2):369-403.
  20. Cherington M. Neurological manifestations of lightning strikes.  Neurology.  2003;60(2):182-185.
  21. Duff K, McCaffery RJ. Electrical injury and lightning injury:  a review of their mechanisms and neuropsychological, psychiatric, and neurological sequelae.  Neuropsychol Rev.  2001;11(2):  101-116.
  22. Slesinger TL, Bank M, Drumheller BC, et al. Immediate cardia arrest and subsequent development of cardiogenic shock caused by lightning strike.  J Truama.  2010;68(1): E5-E7.

General Medical/Sudden Illness


1. www. Eli
2. Jimenez CC, Corcoran MH, et. al. National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statement: Management of the athlete with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.  J Athl Train. 2007;42(4):536-545.


Intracranial Hemmorhage

  1. Orlando Regional Healthcare, Education and Development. Orlando Regional Health Care. [Online] 2004. [Cited: April 27, 2012.]
  2. S., Dawodu. Traumatic brain injury: definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology. [Online] 2005. [Cited: April 27, 2012.]
  3. Steiner LA, Andrews PJ. Monitoring the injured brain: ICP and CBF. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2006, Vol. 97, 1, pp. 26-38.
  4. B, Mokri. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis in CSF volume depletion. Neurology. June 2001, Vol. 56, 12, pp. 1746-8.
  5. S, Tolias C and Sgouros. Initial evaluation and management of CNS injury. [Online] 2006. [Cited: April 27, 2012.]
  6. K, Sanders MJ and McKenna. Head and facial trauma. [book auth.] Mosby. Mosby’s paramedic textbook. 2nd revised Ed. s.l. : Mosby, 2001, 22.
  7. A, Singh J and Stock. Head Trauma. [Online] 2006. [Cited: April 27, 2012.]
  8. A, Downie. Tutorial: CT in head trauma. [Online] 2001. [Cited: April 27, 2012.]
  9. Hart JM, Potter B, Sibold J. Vital Signs Trending and the Rule of 100s. Jul 2012, Vol. 4, 4, p. 152.
  10. McCrory P, Meeuwisse W, Johnston K, Dvorak J, Aubry M, Molloy M, & Cantu R. Consensus statement on SRC in sport: the 3rd international conference in sport help in Zurich, November 2008. Journal of Athletic Training. 2009, Vol. 44, 4, pp. 434-448.
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  12. ChoiceMMed. OxyWatch Quick Operation Guide. Bristol, PA : ChoiceMMed America Co., 2013.
  13. J, Ghajar. Traumatic brain injury. Lancet. September 2000, Vol. 356, 9233, pp. 923-9.


  1. Pollak, MD, FAAOS, Andrew N. Critical Care Transport. Burlington, MA: Jones and Barrlett, 2011.
  2. Putukian, MD, FACSM, Margot. Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Clinics in Sports Medicine Clin Med 23 (2004), 443-454.
  3. Decker, MD, Cameron. “Needle Chest Decompression.” Harris County Emergency Corps. Standing Orders and Emergency Medical Guidelines. 12.7.2015.

Reports and Documentation

Review of Sentinel Event

  1. Patient Safety A Human Factors Approach, Sydney Dekker, CRC Press, 2011
  2. The Patient Safety Handbook, Barbara J. Youngberg, Martin J. Hatlie, Jones and Bartlett, 2004
  3. The Just Culture Community,, 2009